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Pre-Voyage - Solo Project
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GlossaryA/B TestingAgileAPI ( Application Programming Interface )BackendBacklogBoilerplateCacheChingu-XCohortCRUDEdge CaseFeature ( App. Feature )FrontendFull StackFunction ( Application Function )GitGitHubHTTPHTTPSImpostor SyndromeMinificationMockupMVC ( Model View Controller )MVP ( Minimum Viable Product )Pair ProgrammingProject ShowcasePrototypeResponsive DesignRetrospectiveREST-ful APISlackSolo ProjectSprintSprint 1StandupsStretch GoalsTiersTeamTechstackVoyageWorkflow

A/B Testing


A/B testing is a methodology for trying out different ways of achieving the same end result, with the aim of establishing, through experimentation, which solution is the most effective.

Typically A/B testing is used to trial different layouts of web pages, by tracking how many users convert to paying customers using the alternative layouts.

By continuing an iterative process of prototyping, evaluating and adapting, A/B testing can provide a significant increase to the conversion rate of individual pages. It's a useful tool: better conversion means a better balance sheet!


Agile vs Waterfall

The main difference between older waterfall-style project management and agile projects is that waterfall fixes in place the scope of a project to improve the accuracy of resource and time estimates, while agile fixes resources and time and estimates the scope.

For many types of projects, this reversal is more practical since it is not possible to identify all requirements at the beginning of a project. Any attempt to do so will lead to issues in stability and quality since features are implemented without the necessary resources or time.

Agile methodologies address this by adopting an iterative approach to development, with each iteration being the foundation for its later iterations (ie. sprints).

API (Application Programming Interface)


An API is a communication protocol defined by a software system which provides external components with a lexicon for requesting data and invoking predefined functionality. An API can be thought of as a contract between the provider of a service and its requestors.

APIs consist of a set of pre-defined messages that requestors use to ask for data and services, service routines implemented in the provider, and a transport mechanism that transfers messages and results between a provider and the requestors.

In modern JavaScript software systems the protocol is implemented using REST or GraphQL, the transport mechanism is TCP/IP, and the provider services are a series of routes in a backend HTTP server.



The backend of a web application is an enabler for a frontend experience. An application’s frontend may be the most beautifully crafted web page, but if the application itself doesn’t work, the application will be a failure. The backend of an application is responsible for things like calculations, business logic, database interactions, and performance.

Common technologies used in backend development are Ruby, Python, SQL, Node.js, Express.js, and REST APIs.



The project backlog is the work to be performed for the project to reach its goal. Building the backlog is a process of decomposing the application’s features and the technical requirements to support them into an actionable set of work items.



In computer programming, boilerplate code or boilerplate refers to sections of code that have to be included in many places with little or no alteration. It is often used when referring to languages that are considered verbose, i.e. the programmer must write a lot of code to do minimal jobs.

Most professional web developers have created a collection of assets and snippets of code that they reuse on projects to accelerate development. There are some universal or near universal patterns that all websites share in common. Rather than continuously rebuild these, most developers start by copying the code they used for a similar project and then start modifying it.

Some developers recognize the value of these boilerplate starter templates and take the time to make the boilerplate more generic and share them online for others to use.

Create React App and NextJS are two examples of popular boilerplates.



A cache is a temporary storage space for data. When you visit a website, the files that you request are automatically stored in the cache. If you return to that same website in the near future, your browser will retrieve the necessary files from your cache rather than from the original server, so the webpage will load quicker.


Chingu-X is the team of volunteers who perform the behind-the-scenes work of running the Chingu organization. This includes not only monitoring our Slack Teams, but also maintaining our social media presence on Twitter and Dev.to, our GitHub organizations, the Chingu Publication on Medium, and designing and developing the applications that support it all.


A cohort is an intentionally grouped collection of people working towards a goal. For example, Chingu is a cohort.



An acronym for a class of functionality that provide users with Create-Retrieve-Update-Delete (CRUD) operations against a particular set of data. CRUD is common to virtually all applications, so it's important to understand this type of functionality.

Edge Case

An Edge Case is a situation that isn't likely to occur, but isn't impossible either. Edge cases arise when conditions or inputs of extreme ranges are encountered. For example, when extremely high or low values are input into a numeric field.

Software often operates as expected when inputs falling within an expected range of values are provided (sometimes referred to as the "happy path"), but fail if they fall outside the bounds of what is considered normal. Properly handling situations like this requires the developer to code defensively and either support the full range of possible input values, or restrict the input to the range that can be processed without error.

Situations that may lead to unexpected results and errors are broadly classified as edge cases. Examples of these include:

  • Missing or incomplete detection and handling of error conditions. This includes error handling around API and database calls.
  • Improper validation and editing of input values
  • Failure to properly initialize or reset variables
  • Failure to account for changes in environmental conditions, such as resizing of windows or removing all records in a file.

Addressing these types of conditions requires the developer to anticipate them by considering not what is supposed to happen based on the specifications that have been provided, but considering what types of conditions could occur. In other words - "thinking outside of the box".

Feature (App. Feature)

Features are the discrete capabilities an application provides to users which allow them to complete a particular business function. Groups of applications features support an application function.

For example, an application function in a texting application is to send a message, but the functions it provides to the user are to select the recipients, create a message, and to send the message.



Front-end developers write the code that controls how a website looks and interacts when it's displayed in a browser. The primary tools of a front-end developer include HTML (code that makes content render on a page), CSS (coded stylesheets that apply color, typography, style and layout to the HTML) and JavaScript (code that handles advanced interactivity). A front-end developer will also work with a handful of other frameworks that help expedite, enhance, and organize the coding process. For example, popular frontend JavaScript frameworks include React, Vue, and Angular.

Full Stack


Full stack simply means that a combination of frontend and backend will be used.

Function (Application Function)

Application functions can be thought of as the commitments an application makes to its users. In this context, application functions are the contracts an application establishes with the user. Application functions are composed of application features.

Note that this is different from the function definition used in a programming language.

For example, a function of an invoicing application is to create a past due notice, but the application features it's composed of include identifying purchases that have not been paid, applying additional charges based on the purchase terms, generating an itemized dunning notice, and emailing to the buyers.



Git is a distributed source code control system developed in 2005 by Linus Torvalds. Unlike earlier source code control systems (SCCS), Git allows multiple developers to simultaneously modify the same modules. Conflicts are detected and resolved when changes are pushed to a common branch.

This is radically different from earlier SCCS's which followed a checkout-checkin process that allowed only one developer at a time to modify a given file.

Git is the defacto standard SCCS for both commercial and non-commercial software development and most SCCS services, like GitHub and GitLab, are based on it.



GitHub is a cloud interface for Git. It has been around since 2008 and now has over 28 million users worldwide, making it the largest host of source code in the world! GitHub offers all the version control functionality of Git, but also offers its own features, such as bug tracking, task management, and project wikis.



HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol, and is used to transfer data across the internet. HTTP sends the data (say, a HTML document or an image) from an HTTP server program (a web server) to an HTTP client program (a web browser).



HTTP layered with Transport Layer Security (TLS) or Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocols. With HTTPS any data that you send from your computer will be encrypted and will only be decrypted once it has safely arrived at your intended location.

Impostor Syndrome

The Impostor Syndrome is a persistent feeling of inadequacy that continues in spite of evidence to the contrary. This is a very common feeling that we all share (yes! "we"). But in fact, the reality is quite different as shown by the following diagram.

From Developers: How to Overcome Imposter Syndrome by Abhishek Pillai on Medium.com

No one starts out with an innate knowledge of a subject — it’s acquired through work and study! You may not be the expert at JavaScript or CSS or HTML or Angular or React or Vue or some other technology or library, but you will be. And as soon as you think you’ve grasped it, it's almost guaranteed it will change.

Knowledge and learning are cyclical, never ending endeavors. No one ever has a complete mastery over a subject. So, we in this respect we are all impostors. Rest assured that you are not alone in this feeling and you are not an impostor.


Minification Example

Minification is the process of minimizing code and markup in order to reduce the file size. When creating a HTML file, for example, developers will most likely use spacing, comments and variables to make the code more readable as they work with it. To minify the code once the webpage is ready to go live, developers will remove these comments and spaces to ensure a quicker page-load time (crucial for delivering a good user experience!).



In software, a mockup is a prototype that represents the features and functionality of the final product. This can range from a hand drawn wireframe all the way up to an actual working skeleton of an application.

The primary use of a mockup is during design to ensure that features, the user interface, and the user experience all work in harmony before any code is written. Mockups are useful during walkthroughs to identify gaps or weak points in the application design.

Check out this list of mockup tools.

MVC (Model View Controller)

MVC Diagram

MVC is a design pattern which separates the presentation of information to the user from the operations applied to the data provided by the user. This pattern helps make application software modular and easier to maintain and enhance by separating different architectural concerns from one another.

MVP (Minimum Viable Product)

MVPs should be a wholistic user experience and functionality.

When working in web development, you may hear talk of “MVP” — or minimum viable product. The minimum viable product is the most pared-down version of a product that can be released to market. When adopting an MVP approach, developers will first focus on the core features and functions that are absolutely crucial. Then, once the product has been released and user feedback has been gathered, they will continue to build the complete set of features.


Pair Programming


There is an oft-quoted adage that "two heads are better than one". Pair Programming is a practical implementation of this advice. It leverages the experience and knowledge of two developers to improve the speed at which an app is created, but also its quality.

In this process two developers work together, either side-by-side or via screen sharing, with one writing code while the other reviews the code as it is being written. The developer reviewing the code examines it not just for correctness, but also to ensure that it's clear, supportable, and resilient.

The pair keep up a running dialog and frequently switch roles.

The advantage of pair programming is the developer writing the code can focus on the tactical attributes of the code since the developer who reviews the code is responsible for the strategic aspects.

You can find out more about pair programming at:

Project Showcase

An event coordinated by the Chingu-X team at the end of a Voyage that allows teams to share their finished projects with all Chingus. The goal of the Project Showcase is to celebrate success, but it's also to share lessons learned.


A prototype is a proof of concept used to evaluate a design idea. For example, rather than creating a static mockup of what a web page will look like and then asking stakeholders to "approve the design", a team might create a prototype that everyone can interact within the browser. This gives everyone a more realistic, interactive facsimile of the website to try out. Prototypes help teams test ideas and make necessary changes early on, before committing the effort, time and cost that go into building a fully functional product.

An example prototype program is Framer.

Responsive Design


In simple terms, a responsive design is one that adapts to the user's device and, in an ideal world, the user's context so that it displays the content required in the most appropriate and accessible manner, regardless of what kind of web-connected device is being used to view it.

In practice this means a web page will re-paginate itself as the screen size reduces or increases, displaying in multiple columns when viewed on a desktop computer, but only a single column when viewed on a smartphone.



The Sprint Retrospective is conducted by and for the Scrum Team to promote continuous improvement. It is the primary means to the team uses to improve their work and to drive value not just for the customer, but also for themselves in the form of a more integrated and smoothly operating team.

This is an inward look by the team at how they performed during the last sprint and identify changes for the next sprint. This isn’t just about technology and tools, but also about procedures, interactions between people and roles, and successes and failures. The goal is to improve by implementing “midstream” corrections at the point they are needed.


REST API Diagram

Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural pattern used to create web services. REST provides requestors with a stateless mechanism for accessing data and services across the Internet using a defined set of operations including GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE.



"Slack is a collaboration hub, where the right people and the right information come together, helping everyone get work done." - from the Slack website.

Solo Project

The Solo Project session is your warmup for the Voyare Project. In it you will either submit a project you already have that matches the tier you have chosen, or you will create small project (approximately 8-16 hours) from specifications provided by Chingu.

Solo projects provide you with these opportunities:

  1. You can use it to validate the tier you've selected. You may change tiers at any point in the session up to the time you submit your project for evaluation.
  2. Meet other Devs to learn from them and to share what you know.
  3. Time to familiarize yourself with the concepts and tools you’ll need to complete the six week Voyage team project.
  4. Get feedback on your application.

Most importantly, you'll have another app to add to your portfolio!



In product development, a sprint is a set period of time during which specific work has to be completed and made ready for review. Each sprint begins with a planning meeting.

Chingu Voyage projects consist of six, one week Sprints.

Sprint 1

A major misconception about Agile is that it doesn't include design time. Nothing could be further from the truth! Agile doesn't and shouldn't include time for proper design, but it should be conducted at the right time. This means that design, like coding, is iterative.

It's a good use of the team's time to devote the first sprint to creating a high-level design. The goal of this design isn't to answer every detail - it is to identify the main features, create the initial backlog, the structure of the project, who on the team has the skills needed to support the development of each feature, and to identify gaps that need to be filled.

In other words, the goal of your first sprint is to define what is to be built and create a roadmap to be followed throughout the remainder of the project.


Quick status updates regarding your progress. Typically, your entire team would have a dedicated time to share standups together in real-time.

Stretch Goals


Stretch goals are objectives that introduces risk many factors beyond a normal goal and as such, add a level of uncertainty to the ability to reach the objective. Stretch goals embrace the concepts of difficulty as a way to increase your capabilities, and novelty to provide motivation. Doing something difficult is always more enjoyable and rewarding if it’s engaging and fun.


Participants are divided into one of three tiers based on their knowledge and experience at the start of the Voyage. Read about how to select your Tier here.


A team is a group of individuals who work together to reach a common objective. This could be winning a sports competition, achieving a sales goal in business, or developing a software application.


A tech stack is a combination of software products and programming languages used to create a web or mobile application. Applications have two software components: client-side and server-side, also known as front-end and back-end.

Some popular stacks are:

  • MERN - MongoDB - Express - ReactJS - NodeJS
  • MEAN - MongoDB - Express - AngularJS - NodeJS
  • LAMP - Linux - Apache - MySQL - PHP

You can see a list of common techstacks here.


A Voyage is the 8-week team project phase of the Chingu Cohort.

Chingu Voyages are an exciting way to work on projects that provide the opportunity to:

  • Work on interesting and challenging projects
  • Learn new technologies
  • Work with a team of like-minded web developers
  • Improve soft skills including communication, collaboration, and Agile project management
  • Create impact while leveling-up your skills

In short, Chingu Voyages create a setting to help you both acquire and practice the skills you will need on the job.



A workflow is a pattern of actions created by an organization that when followed, create a repeatable product. In this context the product may be information, a service, or a tangible entity. For example, your teams development workflow defines the steps for creating, testing, and deploying modules and files that make up application software.

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